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Causes of World Population Growth

Causes of World Population Growth

Today the Earth is home to more than 7.8 billion people. By 2100 the world human population  is on track to hit 10.8 billion, according to the United Nations — and that’s assuming steady fertility declines in many countries. 

Interestingly, if extra progress is made in women’s reproductive self-determination, and fertility falls more than the United Nations assumes is likely, the population in 2100 might be a relatively smaller 7.3 billion.

human population over time

Causes Of Population Growth

World population growth is marked, according to the UN, by three factors:

  • Fertility rates

Population growth is highly dependent on trends in fertility rates. The global fertility level is expected to decline from 2.5 children per woman in 2019 to 2.2 in 2050, according to the World Populations Prospects study from the UN.

  • Increase in longevity

Life expectancy has increased considerably in recent decades and this trend is set to continue: the forecast is to reach 77.1 years in 2050 (currently around 73). Despite this progress, it should be noted that there is still a very large gap with the least developed countries (7.7 years less life expectancy).

  • International migration

This is a less influential factor than the previous two, but it is also relevant. In fact, those countries that received large numbers of refugees or economic migrants (between 2010 and 2020, fourteen countries or areas had a net inflow of more than one million) may offer a longer life expectancy to newcomers.

These are some of the reasons for the growing population. To avoid pushing the planet to the limit, it is necessary to work together to reduce the carbon footprint, build infrastructures and buildings in line with sustainable urban development, promote smart and sustainable mobility, aim for a circular economy and responsible consumption, promote renewable energies, etc.